Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella and Campylobacter is frequently observed in humans and animals, according to a report released by the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). However, simultaneous resistance to critically important antimicrobials for humans was generally detected at low levels, with the exception of certain Salmonella types and Campylobacter coli in several countries.
AMR data on bacteria from humans, animals, and food are collected annually by EU Member States and reporting countries, which are analyzed and presented by EFSA and ECDC in a yearly EU Summary Report. The present report provides an overview of the 2020–2021 harmonized AMR monitoring for Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and C. coli in humans, food‐producing animals, and meat, as well as indicator Escherichia coli data in animals and meat.
In several countries, an increasing proportion of bacteria from food-producing animals was proven to be susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Furthermore, the prevalence of resistance indicators Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) in E. Coli is decreasing.
A decline in the resistance of Salmonella to ampicillin and tetracycline was also observed in humans in several countries during 2013–2021. This was particularly evident in S. Typhimurium, commonly associated with pigs and calves, and often multidrug-resistant. Data also show decreasing resistance to erythromycin in Campylobacter jejuni from humans and broilers.
Also during 2013–2021, an increase in resistance of S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni in humans to ciprofloxacin was observed. S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni cause most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis infections in humans.
In 2009–2020, C. jejuni from broilers showed increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin in several countries. At present, the level of ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter is so high that the antimicrobial can no longer be recommended in the treatment of severe Campylobacter infections in humans.
Resistance of E. coli to carbapenem, a class of last-resort antimicrobials, remains rare in food-producing animals and humans.
Alongside the report, EFSA has published several interactive data visualization tools: